Aspects of the biology of some marine ascaridoid nematodes
Larval Anisakis simplex, Pseudoterranova decipiens, Contracaecum osculatum and larvae and adults of Hysterothylacium aduncum were recovered from specimens of cod, haddock, blue whiting and bull rout; however, only A.simplex were retrieved from long rough dab. The epidemiology of infection by these four nematode species was examined both in whole fish, and in individual host tissues and organs. Frequency distributions of nematodes were found to be generally overdispersed in fish. Preliminary investigations revealed no strong evidence to suggest that competi tive interactions occurred between ascaridoid nematodes wi thin fish. Stomach lesions in gadoids were associated with single (partially penetrated) and mul tiple (throughout stomach wall) worm infections of larval A.simplex; such lesions were discrete and raised in appearance. Lesions associated with 1-3 larval P.decipiens in an open cavity within the stomach of angler fish were diffuse and not significantly raised. Histological examination of each form of ulcer revealed general similarities in pathology, with infil tration of inflamatory cells being the initial response to the nematode\s. Changes in the cephalic morphology of A.simplex, P.decip1ens, C.osculatum and H.aduncu were examined at different life cycle stages under scanning electron microscopy. Due to their small size, newly hatched third stage larvae of P .decip1ens were cultured in a bacterial mat prior to fixation for S.E.M., and the external ultrastructure of these larvae is described. The most prominent external feature at this stage is the cephalic boring tooth. Aspects of the internal ultrastructure of A. simplex, P.decipiens, C.osculatum and H.aduncu were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Newly hatched third stage larvae of P.decipiens show little differentiation of internal organs. The ultrastructure of sensory amphids in H.aduncum and A. simplex is cons i stent wi th that of a chemoreceptor, that of the single papilla in P.decipiens a mechanoreceptor. The ultrastructure of the digestive tract, excretory gland and body wall of marine ascaridoids were also examined.