Towards achieving sustainable development in Kuwait : the potential role of environmental impact assessment (E.I.A) at the project and policy levels
This thesis has two major objectives. First, some of the key environmental problems, such as waste disposal, pollution and sand encroachment in Kuwait are analysed in the context of the decision making process of the country. On the end once presented it is suggested that decision making is responsible for many of the environmental problems that now exist. This analysis adopts the social science approach of analyzing decision making by investigating both political theories and decision making models and relating them to Kuwait. The second objective is to consider to what extent certain tools and methods of environmental management could be introduced in Kuwait to help resolve the environmental problems. Based on the evaluation of a number of approaches it is suggested that Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.) is probably the most effective environmental management tool to help protect Kuwait's environment and achieve the concept of sustainable development. To be effective however it is aruged that E.I.A. should be applied not only at the project level but also in policy formulation. The case studies are then presented. One considers the application of E.I.A. at the policy level for solid waste management whilst the second describes a project E.I.A. approach for a proposed navigation channel. It is suggested in this thesis that economic growth on its own, should no longer be seen as the main indicator of development. Sustainable development with all that this encompasses including the linking of economic and environmental concerns should be seen as the new development objective. This specifies the need to maintain the quality of natural resources over time to meet the needs of present and future generations. E.I.A. should help to achieve this objective if applied to both projects and policies. This thesis concludes with certain recommendations to impose E.I.A. practice in Kuwait, based on the evidence presented.