Variations in access to domestic water supply in En Nahud District, Sudan
The central aim of this thesis is to develop an understanding of variation in access to domestic water supply in a semi-arid, non-riverain area of Sudan. En Nahud District, in North Kordofan Province, was selected for study because it has existing water supply problems and contains distinct spatial variations in geology, which affects the potential for development of underground water resources. Fieldwork in Sudan was carried out between July and December 1988, and information was collected from a range of sources using a variety of methods. The latter included: semi-structured household interviews conducted with women; key informant interviews; observation; and various published and unpublished articles and data sets. In the thesis, the first chapter introduces the national and international context of this study. Past and present water supply development policies and projects in the Sudan are outlined, and set against the goals of the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. In the second chapter, the research methodology is discussed. Attempt was made to overcome the several spatial, temporal social and economic biases which have occurred in other studies. In the third chapter, the thesis is placed in the physical and socio-economic context of the Province, and the dynamic relationship between water supply and demand is outlined. The following three chapters focus upon the primary constraints which limit access to domestic water supply: water availability; at-source costs; and transportation costs. The components of each, and the way in which they operate to restrict access, are investigated in relation to varying family resources and requirements. The borrowing of carriage resources and the purchase of transportation services are examined as strategies for overcoming families' internal collection-capacity constraints. Finally, seasonal outmigration is discussed as an important response to inadequate access to water supply. In its conclusion, this thesis shows clearly the importance of examining access to water at the family scale: inter-household variations, such as the ownership of carriage animals and varying labour resources, are shown to be influential in affecting household water supply strategies.