Bioreaction and separation in batch chromatographic columns
The objective of this work has been to study the behaviour and performance of a batch chromatographic column under simultaneous bioreaction and separation conditions for several carbohydrate feedstocks. Four bioreactions were chosen, namely the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and fructose using the enzyme invertase, the hydrolysis of inulin to fructose and glucose using inulinase, the hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose using lactase and the isomerization of glucose to fructose using glucose isomerase. The chromatographic columns employed were jacketed glass columns ranging from 1 m to 2 m long and the internal diameter ranging from 0.97 cm to 1.97 cm. The stationary phase used was a cation exchange resin (PUROLITE PCR-833) in the Ca2+ form for the hydrolysis and the Mg2+ form for the isomerization reactions. The mobile phase used was a diluted enzyme solution which was continuously pumped through the chromatographic bed. The substrate was injected at the top of the bed as a pulse. The effect of the parameters pulse size, the amount of substrate solution introduced into the system corresponding to a percentage of the total empty column volume (% TECV), pulse concentration, eluent flowrate and the enzyme activity of the eluent were investigated. For the system sucrose-invertase complete conversions of substrate were achieved for pulse sizes and pulse concentrations of up to 20% TECV and 60% w/v, respectively. Products with purity above 90% were obtained. The enzyme consumption was 45% of the amount theoretically required to produce the same amount of product as in a conventional batch reactor. A value of 27 kg sucrose/m3 resin/h for the throughput of the system was achieved.