Concrete beams with stirrups subject to torsion, shear and bending
This thesis examines experimentally and theoretically the behaviour and ultimate strength of rectangular reinforced concrete members under combined torsion, shear and bending. The experimental investigation consists of the test results of 38 longitudinally and transversely reinforced concrete beams subjected to combined loads, ten beams of which were tested under pure torsion and self-weight. The behaviour of each test beam from application of the first increment of load until failure is presented. The effects of concrete strength, spacing of the stirrups, the amount of longitudinal steel and the breadth of the section on the ultimate torsional capacity are investigated. Based on the skew-bending mechanism, compatibility, and linear stress-strain relationship for the concrete and the steel, simple rational equations are derived for the three principal modes of failure for the following four types of failure observed in the tests: TYPE I Yielding the reinforcement, at failure, before crushing the concrete. TYPE II Yielding of the web steel only, at failure, before crushing the concrete. TYPE III Yielding of the longitudinal steel only, at failure, before crushing the concrete. TYPE IV Crushing of the concrete, at failure, before yielding of any of the reinforcement.