A study in the application of domestic solar assisted heat pumps for heating and cooling
In the present work, the more important parameters of the heat pump system and of solar assisted heat pump systems were analysed in a quantitative way. Ideal and real Rankine cycles applied to the heat pump, with and without subcooling and superheating were studied using practical recommended values for their thermodynamics parameters. Comparative characteristics of refrigerants here analysed looking for their applicability in heat pumps for domestic heating and their effect in the performance of the system. Curves for the variation of the coefficient of performance as a function of condensing and evaporating temperatures were prepared for R12. Air, water and earth as low-grade heat sources and basic heat pump design factors for integrated heat pumps and thermal stores and for solar assisted heat pump-series, parallel and dual-systems were studied. The analysis of the relative performance of these systems demonstrated that the dual system presents advantages in domestic applications. An account of energy requirements for space and hater heating in the domestic sector in the O.K. is presented. The expected primary energy savings by using heat pumps to provide for the heating demand of the domestic sector was found to be of the order of 7%. The availability of solar energy in the U.K. climatic conditions and the characteristics of the solar radiation here studied. Tables and graphical representations in order to calculate the incident solar radiation over a tilted roof were prepared and are given in this study in section IV. In order to analyse and calculate the heating load for the system, new mathematical and graphical relations were developed in section V. A domestic space and water heating system is described and studied. It comprises three main components: a solar radiation absorber, the normal roof of a house, a split heat pump and a thermal store. A mathematical study of the heat exchange characteristics in the roof structure was done. This permits to evaluate the energy collected by the roof acting as a radiation absorber and its efficiency. An indication of the relative contributions from the three low-grade sources: ambient air, solar boost and heat loss from the house to the roof space during operation is given in section VI, together with the average seasonal performance and the energy saving for a prototype system tested at the University of Aston. The seasonal performance as found to be 2.6 and the energy savings by using the system studied 61%. A new store configuration to reduce wasted heat losses is also discussed in section VI.