Drag coefficients with applications to satellite orbits
In the last twenty or so years the results of theory and experiment have produced much information on the characteristics of gas-surface interactions relevant to a satellite in hyperthermal free-molecular flow. This thesis contains reviews of the rarefied gas dynamics applicable to satellites and has attempted to compare existing models of gas-surface interaction with contemporary knowledge of such systems. It is shown that a more natural approach would be to characterise the gas-surface interaction using the normal and tangential momentum accommodation coefficients, igma' and igma respectively, specifically in the form igma = constant , igma' = igma'0 -igma'1sec i where i is the angle subtended between the incident flow and the surface normal and igma,igma'0 and igma'1 are constants. Adopting these relationships, the effects of atmospheric lift on inclination, i, and atmospheric drag on the semi-major axis, a, and eccentricity, e, have been investigated. Applications to ANS-1 (1974-70A) show that the observed perturbation in i can be ascribed primarily to non-zero igma'1 whilst perturbations in a and e produce constraint equations between the three parameters. The numerical results seem to imply that a good theoretical orbit is achieved despite a much lower drag coefficient than anticipated by earlier theories.