The impact of agricultural growth on the agarian structure of Pakistan, with special reference to the Punjab province : 1960 to 1978
Since the introduction of the HYV of foodgrains, research on
Pakistan's agriculture has been preoccupied with either analyzing
the effect of the new technology on output, or (more recently) on
the proportion of the rural population below various "poverty lines".
These studies ignore the fact that the process both of the growth of
output, as well as that of poverty,.. operates through certain classes
and social groups. The purpose of our study is to make a beginning
towards a systematic analysis of changes in agrarian structure in
Pakistan (with special reference to the Punjab) resulting from the
growth of capitalist farming in the 1960s.
Our investigation shows that in the period 1960 to 1978, a
simultaneous proletarianization of the poor peasantry, and a
polarization in size distribution of farms has occurred. Further
our analysis suggests that the observed polarization has been
brought about primarily by larger landlords resuming for selfcultivation,
land formerly rented-out to lower medium and small
sized farmers. This loss of rented-in area hit lower medium farms
to a greater extent than small sized farms, while at the same time
converting some of the former into the latter over the period.
Investigation of the forms of utilization of the agricultural
surplus by size class of farm, showed that although large sized
farms had the highest level of productive investment, they had
indulged in an even larger expenditure on luxury consumer durables.
We analyzed the variations in the forms of organization of
labour on capitalist farms, and the complexity of the wage
relation in the Punjab, in terms of the varying degrees of extraeconomic
control exercised by capitalist farmers over the
labourers. Finally, an attempt was made to analyse the dynamics
between the capitalist farming sector and the poor peasant sector
of the agrarian economy. We examined the consequences of this
interaction for the economic condition of the poor peasants on
the one hand and thei-r political consciousness on the other.