Deep hole drilling with twist drills: aspects of the CNC process and its real time monitoring and adaptive control
Deep hole drilling is one of the most complicated metal cutting processes and one of the most difficult to perform on CNC machine-tools or machining centres under conditions of limited manpower or unmanned operation. This research work investigates aspects of the deep hole drilling process with small diameter twist drills and presents a prototype system for real time process monitoring and adaptive control; two main research objectives are fulfilled in particular : First objective is the experimental investigation of the mechanics of the deep hole drilling process, using twist drills without internal coolant supply, in the range of diarneters Ø 2.4 to Ø4.5 mm and working length up to 40 diameters. The definition of the problems associated with the low strength of these tools and the study of mechanisms of catastrophic failure which manifest themselves well before and along with the classic mechanism of tool wear. The relationships between drilling thrust and torque with the depth of penetration and the various machining conditions are also investigated and the experimental evidence suggests that the process is inherently unstable at depths beyond a few diameters. Second objective is the design and implementation of a system for intelligent CNC deep hole drilling, the main task of which is to ensure integrity of the process and the safety of the tool and the workpiece. This task is achieved by means of interfacing the CNC system of the machine tool to an external computer which performs the following functions: On-line monitoring of the drilling thrust and torque, adaptive control of feed rate, spindle speed and tool penetration (Z-axis), indirect monitoring of tool wear by pattern recognition of variations of the drilling thrust with cumulative cutting time and drilled depth, operation as a data base for tools and workpieces and finally issuing of alarms and diagnostic messages.