Protohistory in the Wadi Ghazzeh : a typological and technological study based on the Macdonald excavations
This study reanalyzes the material from the excavations and survey of Eann Macdonald in the Wadi Ghazzeh in 1929-30 which are published in Beth Pelet II. Each site investigated by Macdonald is discussed and analyzed in terms of the stratigraphy recorded in Beth Pelet II and of the Material remains gathered through his work that are found in the collections of the Institute of Archaeology of the University of London, the British Museum and the Ashmolean Museum. Additional information is provided through consideration of subsequent work in the region by Messrs. Perrot and Alon. Four cultural phases are distinguishable - a local ceramic Neolithic phase that is found primarily in Sites B and M, two Beer Sheba-Ghassul Chalcolithic phases in Sites D, E, 0, M, A, and B and an Early Bronze I phase in Site H. These phases are defined on the basis of the technological and typological attributes of the flaked stone and ceramic assemblages. Re-examination of the collections revealed a significant number of Egyptian and Egyptian style flints in Site H as well as the possibility that some of the pottery is a local imitation of Egyptian ceramics. Certain flaked stone artifacts in Chalcolithic contexts ay also owe their existence to Egyptian influence. The analyses are based upon a detailed study of almost 15,000 flaked stone and ceramic artifacts. The typology and technical analysis of the flaked stone assemblage, developed with the aid of statistical techniques, is the first such study conducted on protohistoric Material from Israel and should serve as a basic building block for future research. The similar development of the typology and technological analysis of the ceramic material is one of the few times prehistoric lithic analytic techniques have been adapted to ceramic studies.