Missionaries of the Church Missionary Society as travellers in East Africa, 1844-1914
The opening chapter of this thesis gives a background to the CMS arrival in East Africa both at the coast and further inland. Journeys by missionaries of Krapf's era are examined. The four major routes used by travellers to reach the lacustrine area from the coast are described, particularly the two routes most commonly used by missionaries after 1876. Before 1914 the missionary traveller par excellence in East AFrica was Bishop Tucker. In their journeys few, if any, of the other missionaries exceeded the mileage of A.B. Fisher, a feature of CMS history that has been little recognised hitherto. One chapter of this thesis focusses upon Fisher's journeys to and from Uganda, whilst another considers his travels inside Uganda. The travelling feats of Dr. E.J. Baxter are highlighted, as are those of C.H. Stokes, the man who led most of the long distance CMS caravans before 1891. Barter items were a major part of missionary impedimenta. Settling toll charges (hongo) delayed missionary caravans as did sickness and Sunday halts. The extent to which nineteenth century missionaries, including David Livingstone, had to travel on Sundays is examined. This aspect, together with the management of porters and the use of firearms, constituted major moral dilemmas for the missionary traveller. Research has been made into the role of the chair and the bicycle on missionary journeys. At the dawn of the twentieth century travel was revolutionised in East Africa by innovations of modern technology, such as the Uganda railway and steamboats. Furthermore missionaries used bicycles, motor cycles and lorries along the developing road systems. Nevertheless, in many outlying areas of East Africa the porterage system remained the backbone of the transportation of goods after the Edwardian era, just as it had been in earlier years.