Synthesis and biological properties of 2-phenylbenzothiazole derivatives
2-Phenylbenzothiazoles have structural similarities to the antioestrogenic 2-phenylindole, zindoxifene and to the oestrogenic isoflavone, genistein which also inhibits tyrosine kinases. Hydroxylated 2-phenylbenzothiazole derivatives were therefore produced and tested for oestrogenic and tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Synthesis of methoxy substituted 2-phenylbenzothiazoles was via the Jacobson method, demethylation being effected by boron tribromide at -70oC. Three amino substituted 2-phenylbenzothiazoles were also synthesised and tested for activity. Data is presented for oestrogen receptor binding activity, aromatase inhibitory activity, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFRTK) inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity to ANN-1, 3T3, MCF-7 and WIDR cells. Oestrogen receptor binding affinity (RBA) was shown by five of the nine compounds tested. 2-(4-hydroxy)-6-hydroxybenzo-thiazole was the most active of the benzothiazoles tested (RBA 0.7). This is low but comparable to that of genistein. EGFRTK inhibitory activity was shown by four of the six benzothiazole derivatives tested; activity was comparable to that of genistein. Cytotoxicity assays have shown no selective toxicity of 2-phenylbenzothiazoles to any of the cell lines tested. Toxicity to MCF-7 cells was similar to that for other cell lines despite some compounds showing oestrogen receptor binding capacity. Amino-substituted 2-phenylbenzothiazoles showed selective toxicity towards transformed ANN-1 cells compared to normal 3T3 cells but the mechanism of this selectivity has not been established. Molecular modelling techniques, including CHEM-X, QUANTA and MOPAC were used to compare known ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitors with a model of ATP built from the crystal structure of the ATP-phosphoglycerate kinase complex. Structural features thought to be important to kinase inhibition were found and used to suggest further 2-phenylbenzothiazole analogues which may have improved activity.