Transmission electron microscope studies of emitters of silicon bipolar transistors
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) studies have been carried out of emitter regions in polysilicon contacted emitter bipolar transistors. The preparation of suitable TEM thin foils is described. In addition a technique is developed for the observation and quant jtative interpretation of the break-up of the interfacial oxide layers observed in these samples. The effect of annealing the samples prior to emitter dopant implantation (pre-annealing) is investigated for phosphorus and arsenic doped samples, implanted into a polysilicon layer 0.4μm thick, with a dose of 1x1016cm2. Two wafer pre-cleans have been used prior to polysilicon deposition to produce a thin oxide (0-8Å) and a thicker oxide (14Å). In the presence of the thinner oxide, the phosphorus doped samples enhance epitaxial regrowth of the polysilicon layer compared with the arsenic doped or undoped samples. In the presence of the thicker oxide, no difference is observed between the samples. A mechanism is proposed to explain this. The mechanisms controlling the gain of a phosphorus doped device are investigated and a model proposed to explain the observed electrical characteristics. It is concluded that there are two mechanisms responsible for the observed supression of hole current. Firstly tunnelling through the interfacial oxide and secondly some blocking effect of the interface. Carrier transport in the polysilicon is not believed to contribute to this supression. A dopant sensitive etch has been applied to TEM thin foils containing fully processed emitters in state-of-the-art devices. The shape of the emitter dopant distribution is revealed in such devices for the first time, and a 2-D profile is obtained from the emitter. It is shown that reduction in the emitter depth to 8OOÅ or less does not alter the emitter dopant geometry. The technique is demonstrated to be capable of resolving spatial separations of dopant iso-concentration contours of 100Å or less.