Monte Carlo simulation of silicon-germanium transistors
Self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation studies of n-channel Si/SiGe modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) and silicon-on-insulator lateral bipolar junction transistors (SOI- LBJTs) are reported in this thesis. As a preliminary to the device studies Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in bulk Si strained as if grown on Si(_0.77)Ge(_0.23) and Si(_0.55)Ge(_0.45) substrates have been carried out at 300 K, for field strengths varied from 10(^4) to 2 x 10(^7) Vm(^-1). The calculations indicate an enhancement of the average electron drift velocity when Si is tensilely strained in the growth plane. The enhancement of electron velocity is more marked at low and intermediate electric fields, while at very high fields the velocity saturates at about the same value as unstrained Si. In addition the ensemble Monte Carlo method has been used to study the transient response to a stepped electric field of electrons in strained and unstrained Si. The calculations suggest that significant velocity overshoots occurs in strained material. Simulations of n-channel Si/Si(_1=z)Ge(_z) MODFETs with Ge fractions of 0.23, 0.25, and 0.45 have been performed. Five depletion mode devices with x = 0.23 and 0.25 were studied. The simulations provide information on the microscopic details of carrier behaviour, including carrier velocity, kinetic energy and carrier density, as a function of position in the device. Detailed time-dependent voltage signal analysis has been carried out to test device response and derive the frequency bandwidth. The simulations predict a current gain cut-off frequency of 60 ± 10 GHz for a device with a gate length of 0.07 /nm and a channel length of 0.25 um. Similar studies of depletion and enhancement mode n-channel Si/Sio.55Geo.45 MODFETs with a gate length of 0.18 /im have been carried out. Cut-off frequencies of 60 ±10 GHz and 90± 10 GHz are predicted for the depletion and enhancement mode devices respectively. A Monte Carlo model has also been devised and used to simulate steady state and transient electron and hole transport in SOI-LBJTs. Four devices have been studied and the effects of junction depth and silicon layer thickness have been investigated. The advantage of the silicon-on-insulator technology SOI device is apparent in terms of higher collector current, current gain, and cut-off frequency obtained in comparison with an all-silicon structure. The simulations suggest that the common-emitter current gain of the most promising SOI-LBJT structure considered could have a cut-off frequency approaching 35 ± 5 GHz.