Novel bioadhesive formulations for mucosal and parenteral delivery of vaccines
In this work we have established the efficient mucosal delivery of vaccines using absorption enhancers and chitosan. In addition, the use of chitosan was shown to enhance the action of other known adjuvants, such as CTB or Quil-A. Collectively, the results presented herein indicate that chitosan has excellent potential as a mucosal adjuvant. We have evaluated a number of absorption enhancers for their adjuvant activity in vivo. Polyornithine was shown to engender high scrum immune reasons to nasally delivered antigens, with higher molecular weight polyornithine facilitating the best results. We have demonstrated for the first time that vitamin E TPGS can act as mucosal adjuvant. Deoxycholic acid, cyclodextrins and acylcarnitines were also identified as effective mucosal adjuvants and showed enhanced immune responses to nasally delivered TT, DT and Yersinia pestis V and F1 antigens. Previously, none of these agents, common in their action as absorption enhancing agents, have been shown to have immunopotentiating activity for mucosal immunisation. We have successfully developed novel surface modified microspheres using chitosan as an emulsion stabiliser during the preparation of PLA microspheres. It was found that immune responses could be substantially increased, effectively exploiting the immunopenetrating characteristics of both chitosan and PLA microspheres in the same delivery vehicle. In the same study, comparison of intranasal and intramuscular routes of administration showed that with these formulations, the nasal route could be as effective as intramuscular delivery, highlighting the potential of mucosal administration for these particulate delivery systems Chitosan was co-administered with polymer microspheres. It was demonstrated that this strategy facilitates markedly enhanced immune responses in both magnitude and duration following intramuscular administration. We conclude that this combination shows potential for single dose administration of vaccines. In another study, we have shown that the addition of chitosan to alum adsorbed TT was able to enhance immune responses. PLA micro/nanospheres were prepared and characterised with discreet particle size ranges. A smaller particle size was shown to facilitate higher scrum IgG responses following nasal administration. A lower antigen loading was additionally identified as being preferential for the induction of immune responses in combination with the smaller particle size.