Optical and transport properties of polyaniline films
This thesis presents the results of a comprehensive study on the transport and optical properties of polyaniline (PANI) films. The films are derived by protonation (doping) of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline, as synthesized in Durham, with either 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-l-propanesulfonic acid (AMPSA) or 10- camphorsulfonic acid. Thus, two distinct PANI systems are obtained: PANI-CSA and PANI-AMPSA. The variation of the doping level can affect the metallic properties of the final system, so that samples close to the boundary as well as samples at either side of a disorder induced metal-insulator can be obtained. The relation between the doping level and the degree of disorder, along with the existence of an inherently metallic behaviour in PANI, are investigated through a series of experiments. Temperature dependent dc conductivity measurements ranging from 10-295 K are performed using a closed loop helium cryostat under dynamic vacuum (~10(^-5) mbar). From the conductivity data curves, typical fingerprints of the metallic behaviour are detected for certain samples and an initial estimate of the degree of disorder is implicitly attained. More specific information regarding the microscopic contributions to the transport mechanisms is obtained via low temperature (down to 1.5 K) magnetocon- ductance measurements on selected samples. The magnetic field dependence of conductivity for fields up to 14 T is measured and the suitability of the localization- interaction model for the understanding of the transport mechanism in PANI is examined. Infrared reflectivity (20-9000 cm(^-1)) measurements on samples of both PANI systems are performed. The experimental configuration permits the determination of the sample’s absolute reflectivity. The optical constants are deduced from Kramers- Kronig analysis of the reflectivity data. Typical features of metallic behaviour are examined and analysed in the context of the localization modified Drude model. The results are shown to be consistent with the transport measurements, indicating that PANI is a disordered metal close to the boundary of a disorder induced metal- insulator transition.