Transient liquid phase bonding of an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy
Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys have been developed with unique mechanical properties. However, in order to achieve commercial application an appropriate joining process is necessary which minimizes disruption to the alloy microstructure. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding is a promising joining method, but previous work has shown that the segregation of dispersoids within the joint region results in bonds with poor mechanical strengths. This research work was undertaken to further explore particulate segregation at the joint region when TLP bonding and to develop bonding techniques to prevent it. A Ni-Cr-Fe-Si-B interlayer was used to bond an alloy MA 758. The effects of parent alloy grain size, bonding temperature, and external pressure on the TLP bonding process were investigated. Three melting stages were identified for the interlayer, and the bonding temperature was chosen so that the interlayer was in the semi-solid state during bonding. This novel bonding mechanism is described and applied to counteract the segregation of Y203 dispersoids. The grain size of the parent alloy does not alter the particulate segregation behaviour. It is concluded that a low bonding temperature with moderate pressure applied during bonding is preferable for producing bonds with less disruption to the microstructures of the parent alloy. Joint shear tests revealed that a near parent alloy strength can be achieved. This study also shed some light on choosing the right bonding parameters suitable for joining the complicated alloy systems. A Ni-P interlayer was also used to bond the ODS alloy. Microstructural examination indicated that a thin joint width and less disruption to the parent grain structure were achieved when bonding the alloy in the fine grain state. The time for isothermal solidification was found to be shorter when compared with bonds made with the parent alloy in the recrystallized state. All these observations were attributed to the greater diffusivity of P along the grain boundaries than that of the bulk material. A high Cr content within the parent alloy changes the mechanism of the bonding process. The diffusion of Cr into the liquid interlayer has the effect of raising the solidus temperature, which not only accelerates the isothermal solidification process, but also reduces the extent of parent alloy dissolution.