Glass painting in Scotland, 1830-70
This is a thesis in two parts. Chapters one to four examine the circumstances of the stained glass revival in Scotland while chapters five to eight identify the particular character of nineteenth century Scottish glass painting up to the 1870s. The opening question is whether or not by the early nineteenth century glass painting was truly an art in decline and this discussion leads into the investigation of the significance of progress in the glass industry to the stained glass revival. This line of questioning continues with the identification of the pioneers of the stained glass revival in Scotland, re-assessing the contribution of James Ballantine and introducing William Cooper. The initial demand for stained glass in Scotland is explored through reference to genealogy, antiquarianism and High Church practice. Edinburgh offered unique opportunities for apprentice glass painters to acquire an art education and this thesis moves on to discuss how this influenced their approach to glass painting, focusing upon the career of Francis Wilson Oliphant. It argues that the commissions which shaped the future direction of Scottish glass painting were the rebuilding of the Houses of Parliament and the re-glazing of Glasgow Cathedral where, in both cases, German glass painting was nominated as the approved artistic model. As it was eventually decided that the new windows for Glasgow Cathedral should be designed and executed by the Königliche Glasmalereianstaff of Munich, thesis concludes with a demonstration of the subsequent German influence upon Scottish glass painting.