An integrated performance measurement system of healthcare services : an empirical study of public and private hospitals in Malaysia
The purpose of this study is to explore performance measurement systems in the healthcare services in Malaysia. This study postulates a framework based on an analysis of the existing literature in the field and on the empirical evidence collected during fieldwork. This framework provides a useful perspective for studying performance measurement in developing countries such as Malaysia. Moreover, identification of gaps in the field enables both academics as well as practitioners to improve the existing systems, thereby creating more robust and better surveillance in the healthcare industry. The findings show that in order for systems to operate efficiently, three major components must work together, namely strategy formulation and deployment, internal control systems, and managing processes. The empirical framework developed in the study represents an amalgamation of approaches used in organisations. One of the findings is that top management commitments, people involvement, and structure to accommodate change process are the catalyst for measurement systems to work. Further analysis reveals (survey) that 80% of users are not satisfied with their measurement system. This means that there is a need for further research in the future. Performance measurement is in its embryonic stage in Malaysia as the survey reveals domains accomplishment of less than 50%. The healthcare industry is inevitably growing and the Malaysian government needs to address the importance of measuring performance in the long run. Learning from another country's experience is the best way forward. The thesis also provides a context in which performance measurement works. There are two contexts applied: healthcare industries and Malaysia. Both contextual elements are important; healthcare has special attributes that make it different from other industries, while Malaysia has unique properties that provide a fresh look at healthcare. The key to successful performance measurement is to ensure congruence in all elements of the systems: context (Malaysia and healthcare) and content (organisations where systems exist). Then integration can be accomplished.