Fast response static var generator for improving the power system performance of an electric arc furnace (EAF)
Cascaded multilevel inverters-based Static Var Generators (SVGs) are FACTS equipment introduced for active and reactive power flow control. They eliminate the need for zigzag transformers and give a fast response. However, with regard to their application for flicker reduction in using Electric Arc Furnace (EAF), the existing multilevel inverter-based SVGs suffer from the following disadvantages. (1) To control the reactive power, an off-line calculation of Modulation Index (MI) is required to adjust the SVG output voltage. This slows down the transient response to the changes of reactive power; and (2) Random active power exchange may cause unbalance to the voltage of the d.c. link (HBI) capacitor when the reactive power control is done by adjusting the power angle d alone. To resolve these problems, a mathematical model of 11-level cascaded SVG, was developed. A new control strategy involving both MI (modulation index) and power angle (d) is proposed. A selected harmonics elimination method (SHEM) is taken for switching pattern calculations. To shorten the response time and simplify the controls system, feed forward neural networks are used for on-line computation of the switching patterns instead of using look-up tables. The proposed controller updates the MI and switching patterns once each line-cycle according to the sampled reactive power Qs. Meanwhile, the remainder reactive power (compensated by the MI) and the reactive power variations during the line-cycle will be continuously compensated by adjusting the power angles, d. The scheme senses both variables MI and d, and takes action through the inverter switching angle, qi. As a result, the proposed SVG is expected to give a faster and more accurate response than present designs allow. In support of the proposal there is a mathematical model for reactive powered distribution and a sensitivity matrix for voltage regulation assessment, MATLAB simulation results are provided to validate the proposed schemes. The performance with non-linear time varying loads is analysed and refers to a general review of flicker, of methods for measuring flickers due to arc furnace and means for mitigation.