Systemic constraints on aid policy and aid outcomes : the history of Canadian official development assistance to Tanzania
This thesis examines the aid process to discover why aid so often fails. It does this through an investigation of the determinants of Canadian aid policy, the forces which have shaped the manner in which it has been implemented in Tanzania, and how this has affected the outcome of these efforts. The study examines in detail three significant policy decisions taken with respect to the Canadian aid programme in the past fifteen years: the decentralization and recentralization of aid administration 1989 - 1993; failed efforts in the DAC to further untie bilateral aid in 1999; and the termination of Canadian bilateral aid to Tanzania and the rest of East Africa in 1993. In addition, Canadian assistance in Hanang District, Tanzania between 1967 and 1999 is examined as a means to identify the numerous obstacles encountered by aid officials in the course of implementing aid agreements, and the forces which influence their decision-making process. Particular attention has been paid to the influence exerted on the Canadian aid programme as a result of its participation in international organizations like the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD and the World Bank. The study also identifies constraints on the effective use of aid resources inherent in the institutionalized processes of aid which inhibit the capacity of the Canadian International Development Agency to respond effectively to evidence of policy failure and improve aid practice. It is argued that bureaucratic processes have an enduring power to shape the policies they were designed to administer. In addition, that the institutional structure of the aid programme has made it extremely vulnerable to the pursuit of economic and political objectives which conflict with the stated purpose of Canadian ODA as an instrument for poverty alleviation in recipient countries.