Synthesis and cytotoxity of oxysterols: studies on the A,B ring polyoxygenated sterols
Oxysterols (OS), the polyoxygenated sterols, represent a class of potent regulatory molecules for important biological actions. Cytotoxicity of OS is one of the most important aspects in studies of OS bioactivities. However, studies, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) study in particular, have been hampered by the limited availability of structurally diverse OS in numbers and amounts. The aim of this project was to develop robust synthetic methods for the preparation of polyhydroxyl sterols, thereof, evaluate their cytotoxicity and establish structure-activity relationship. First, we found hydrophobicity of the side chain is essential for 7-HC's cytotoxicity, and a limited number of hydroxyl groups and a desired configuration on the A, B ring are required for a potent cytotoxicity of an OS, after syntheses and tests of a number of 7-HC's analogues against cancer cell lines. Then polyoxygenation of cholesterol A, B rings was explored. A preparative method for the synthesis of four diastereomerically pure cholest-4-en-3,6-diols was developed. Epoxidation on these cholest-4-en-3,6-diols showed that an allyl group exerts an auxiliary role in producing products with desired configuration in syntheses of the eight diastereomerically pure 45-epoxycholestane-3,6-diols. Reduction of the eight 45-epoxycholestane-3,6-diols produced all eight isomers of the cytotoxic 5α-acholestane 3β,5,6β-triol (CT) for the first time. Epoxide ring opening with protic or Lewis acids on the eight 45-epoxycholestane-3,6-diols are carefully studied. The results demonstrated a combination of an acid and a solvent affected the outcomes of a reaction dramatically. Acyl group participation and migration play an important role with numbers of substrates under certain conditions. All the eight 4,5-trans cholestane- 3,4,5,6-tetrols were synthesised through manipulation of acyl participation. Furthermore these reaction conditions were tested when a number of cholestane-3,4, 5,6,7-pentols and other C3-C7 oxygenated sterols were synthesised for the first time. Introduction of an oxygenated functional group through cholest-2-ene derivatives was studied. The elimination of 3-(4-toluenesulfonate) esters showed the interaction between the existing hydroxyls or acyls with the reaction centre often resulted in different products. The allyl oxidation, epoxidation and Epoxide ring opening reactions are investigated with these cholest-2-enes.