Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.245973
Title: Biological control of soil-borne disease in soybean by denitrifying antagonistic bacteria : the possible role of reduced nitrogen compounds for control of plant pathogens
Author: Chidburee, Siripun
ISNI:       0000 0001 3543 8625
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 1998
Availability of Full Text:
Access through EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Please try the link below.
Access through Institution:
Abstract:
A number of experiments were carried out to study the potential of denitrifying bacteria and reduced nitrogen compounds for control of soil-borne damping-off pathogens. Measurement of the rhizosphere pH of growing soybean roots was carried out in soil adjusted to different pH states and packed into sheet microcosms. The results showed that the rhizosphere pH of soybean was lower than the bulk soil. Nitrate reductase activity and nitrite production was then characterised for the rhizosphere of intact 14 day-old soybean roots that were incubated in nitrate substrates adjusted to different pH values under water-logged conditions. The results showed that the rate and the quantity of nitrite production increased with increasing nitrate concentration and pH in the solution. A growth room experiment was carried out to determine root colonization by denitrifying bacteria in relation to disease caused by soil-borne pathogens, which are favoured by high soil moisture (approximately -5 KPa) and low oxygen levels. Nitrite producing bacteria were isolated from soybean roots grown in Grampian (Insch) soils which had not been cropped with soybean and Thai (Phitsanulok) soils which previously had been cropped with soybean. In the first pot experiment, the nitrite producing bacteria were isolated from different root sections of 12 and 19 day-old soybean plants after 8 weeks of continuous cropping of soils with soybean (a new crop was planted every week), and using different isolation media in order to determine the genus/species composition of the denitrifying bacteria on the rhizoplane. The results showed that continuous cropping of Thai soil and Insch soil with soybean increased pre-emergence damping-off disease and decreased fresh weight yields in seedlings that did emerge. ANOVA showed significant differences between root sections for most bacterial groups monitored {Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae), with regression analysis generally showing densities increasing with root age or toward the shoot base. All nitrite producing bacterial isolates were screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina on agar plates and between 10 and 25% of nitrite producing bacteria were found to show in vitro antagonism. In a second pot experiment, the nitrite producing bacteria were isolated from root tissue below the crown (5 cm in length) every 2 weeks of continuous cropping of soils with soybean (a new crop was planted every 2 weeks). Plate-counting was carried out to determine the population of nitrite producing bacteria while a liquid culture MPN method was used for determination of NO, N2O and N2 producing bacteria. Linear regression analysis of the incidence of pre-emergence damping-off and soybean yields in seedling that did emerge showed a highly significant negative correlation between these parameters for both soils. ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between soil type, with the Thai soil showing higher population densities of antagonistic bacteria on soybean roots. All nitrite producing bacterial isolates were screened for antifungal activity, but the plant pathogenic fungus, Pythium ultimum, was used in this experiment. The results showed that between 10 and 40% of nitrite producing bacteria showed in vitro antagonism. However, regression analysis showed that there was no significant increase or decrease in the nitrite producing antagonistic bacterial population with continuous soybean cropping. All 900 isolates of nitrite producing bacteria isolated from the soybean rhizoplane were screened for antagonistic activity towards Pythium ultimum based on a pot trial assay in the greenhouse. As expected, very low numbers of nitrite producing bacteria showed activity against P. ultimum and only one isolate gave a significant reduction in disease incidence in pot trials. The interactive effects of nitrite producing antagonist and an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and Bradryrhizobium japonicum, on control of the fungal pathogens, P. ultimum or M. phaseolina were investigated in the greenhouse. The results showed that improved plant growth was obtained with certain combined inocula involving nitrite producing bacterial antagonists, Glomus mosseae and Bradryrhizobium japonicum.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.245973  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Damping off; Fungal diseases Agronomy Plant diseases Horticulture Ecology
Share: