High sample-rate Givens rotations for recursive least squares
The design of an application-specific integrated circuit of a parallel array processor is considered for recursive least squares by QR decomposition using Givens rotations, applicable in adaptive filtering and beamforming applications. Emphasis is on high sample-rate operation, which, for this recursive algorithm, means that the time to perform arithmetic operations is critical. The algorithm, architecture and arithmetic are considered in a single integrated design procedure to achieve optimum results. A realisation approach using standard arithmetic operators, add, multiply and divide is adopted. The design of high-throughput operators with low delay is addressed for fixed- and floating-point number formats, and the application of redundant arithmetic considered. New redundant multiplier architectures are presented enabling reductions in area of up to 25%, whilst maintaining low delay. A technique is presented enabling the use of a conventional tree multiplier in recursive applications, allowing savings in area and delay. Two new divider architectures are presented showing benefits compared with the radix-2 modified SRT algorithm. Givens rotation algorithms are examined to determine their suitability for VLSI implementation. A novel algorithm, based on the Squared Givens Rotation (SGR) algorithm, is developed enabling the sample-rate to be increased by a factor of approximately 6 and offering area reductions up to a factor of 2 over previous approaches. An estimated sample-rate of 136 MHz could be achieved using a standard cell approach and O.35pm CMOS technology. The enhanced SGR algorithm has been compared with a CORDIC approach and shown to benefit by a factor of 3 in area and over 11 in sample-rate. When compared with a recent implementation on a parallel array of general purpose (GP) DSP chips, it is estimated that a single application specific chip could offer up to 1,500 times the computation obtained from a single OP DSP chip.