The implementation of public low-cost housing programme in Malaysia 1976-1990
This thesis has examined the problem of target under-achievement of the Public Low-Cost Housing Programme (pLCHP) in three Malaysian five-year development plans between 1976 and 1990. The study tested the "policy implementation" approaches and data were analysed by the combination of both quantitative and qualitative techniques. The study focused on: (a) the project's preparation and planning; (b) the projects' funding and resourcing; and, (c) the effect of inter-actions amongst agencies and actors at the local level. The study confirmed that there were associations between these factors and the programme's performance. Analyses on time taken to complete the projects' implementation process confirmed that there was no significant difference between the five-year plans. This implied that no improvement occurred despite attempts and measures to improve this programme. The project implementation process involved four stages: (a) preparation and planning; (b) resourcing; (c) construction; and, (d) completion. Delays occurred because the longest time was spent on the preparation and planning stage. Delays at this stage caused further delays in other stages. Target shortfall occurred because of implementation delays where the mean project completion time was more than fiveyears and a large number of projects were completed outside the intended plan. There were also relationships between the programme funding and its performance. Delays in implementing the projects caused cost increases and further cost increases when projects were not completed within the five-year plan. Delays in starting the construction rendered the amount of funding allocated no longer adequate to cover the total project cost. Correct estimation and proper project preparation were important for building houses within the five-year plan and within the funding provided. Inadequate funding was made to this programme and as a result the states had to meet project costs from their own funding. The project cost also increased as time elapsed from 1976 to 1990 during the three five-year planning periods. This study validated the "bottom up" perspective of program implementation where it confirmed that there was a relationship between the interactions of actors and agencies at the bottom and the programme performance.