The impact of sea-air mode on air cargo transport
The following research looks into the concept of sea-air intermodality, a combination of two or more modes of transport for the carriage of goods from origin to destination. The study examines why and how this form of transport evolved to become a viable alternative to the conventional single modes of ocean and air transport. The viability of the sea-air mode depends on various equally important factors which are analysed in depth, with a special emphasis on the sea-air transfer port. fn this context, research findings of the world's existing sea-air hubs are recorded and evaluated in terms of their present and future trends. At a sea-air transfer hub, ocean cargo is converted to direct air freight, thus adding new volumes of air cargoes. In this respect, sea-air plays a positive role in the present and future development of the air freight industry. The impact of the sea-air mode can be most clearly seen in the case study analysis in Chapter 10 of this thesis, whereby the potential for 'convertibility' of large portions of low density ocean cargoes to the sea-aix mode, is successfully demonstrated.