Management and work environment in Kuwait society : the implication of gender for management style
The research focused on three main themes in the Kuwait society. The first study is developed to measure the differences in the characteristics of the work environment between the public and the private sectors within Kuwait labor force. The study had been conducted on 80 managers of both sexes and 266 employees of both sexes from the public sector, and 80 managers of both sexes and 274 employees of both sexes from the private sector. The results had indicated that according to the combined group (employees and managers, both sexes), the private sector exceeded the public sector regarding: involvement, peer-cohesion, task orientation, work-pressure, clarity, control, innovation and physical-comfort. Only the employees sample showed similar results. By comparing the male employees and the female employees in both sectors, it was clear that males had higher mean scores than females regarding involvement, task orientation, work-pressure, clarity, and control. Also, the results of the manager group is consistent with the combined group (both employees and managers, both sexes). However, the comparison between the male managers and female managers in both sectors indicated that, involvement, staff-support, clarity, control, innovation, and physical-comfort were higher in males than their females counterparts. The second study is designed to clarify any differences in personality traits between male and female Kuwaiti managers. The study has been conducted on 150 male and 150 female managers from Kuwait society. The results showed few differences between male and female managers. It was clear that males were more lively or enthusiastic and more imaginative than females. While, females were more depressive (as a personality characteristic) or apprehensive than male managers. The third study is concerned with the status profile of Kuwaiti women during the oil era (1946-1960) and developing period (1960-1985) regarding her social, educational, and vocational status. So, regarding work environment, work in the private sector was more likely to be seen as high in the involvement factor, more concerned with the work's regulations, conscientious, and more likely to remain and conform to the organization's disciplinary systems, more committed to new styles and modern systems in their jobs to achieve their targets, and they were more interested with their work place, than their public staff counterparts. Also, the private sector is often seen as an efficient and productive work sector in comparison with the public sector. Regarding the personality traits, Kuwaiti male managers appear to be more enthusiastic and lively with strong and imaginative personality traits. However, the Kuwaiti female managers appear to have strong apprehensive personality traits.