The potential use of bio-ultracarbofluids in a standard diesel engine
The replacement of diesel fuel by ultra-carbofluids was perceived to offer the potential to decrease the emissions of environmental pollutants such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons (HC's) and smoke. Such ultracarbofluids consist of a suspension of coal in fuel oil and water generally in the ratio of 5: 3: 2 plus a small amount of stabilising additive. The literature relating to the economies of coal and fuel oil production, and the production and properties of charcoal and vegetable oils has been critically reviewed. The potential use of charcoal and vegetable oils as replacements for coal and fuel oil are discussed. An experimental investigation was undertaken using novel bio-ultracarbofluid formulations. These differed from an ultracarbofluid by having bio-renewable charcoal and vegetable oil in place of coal and fuel oil. Tests were made with a Lister-Petter 600cc 2-cylinder, 4-stroke diesel engine fitted with a Heenan-Froude DPX 1 water brake dynamometer to measure brake power output, and Mexa-321E and Mexa-211E analysers to measure exhaust pollutants. Measurements were made of engine brake power output, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and smoke emissions over the speed range 1000 to 3000 rpm at 200 rpm intervals. The results were compared with those obtained with a standard diesel reference fuel. All the bio-ultracarbofluid formulations produced lower brake power outputs (i.e. 5.6% to 20.7% less brake power) but substantially improved exhaust emissions of CO2, CO, HC's and smoke. The major factor in the formulation was found to be the type and amount of charcoal; charcoal with a high volatile content (27.2%) and present at 30% by mass yielded the best results, i.e. only slightly lower brake power output and significantly lower exhaust pollutants.