The taxonomy and ecology of the genus Licuala (Palmae) in Malaya.
This dissertation exaDines the international history ot the Gulf
region during the period from 1958 to 1979. It begins with the tall of the
Iraqi DOnarchy and ends with the tall ot the Shah of Iran. Particular
attention is paid throughout to the establishment of the new Gulf states
and their e.ergence into 'DOdernity'.
In Chapter I we deal with the historical background of the Gulf
states, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab
Emirates and ODan. Besides the historical background we also deal !1th
recent social, economic and political developments within all of these
states. Special attention has been paid to the culture, religion and
SOCiety of our subjects since these factors playa major role in the
domestic and external decision-making. Faysal of Saudi Arabia, for example,
formed his policies according to his strong Islaldc beliefs.
In Chapter II we deal with the conflicts and disputes aDOng our
subjects. Disputes over whole territory, as in the case of the Iraqi claim
over Kuwait and the Iranian claim over Bahrain or disputes over islands
which one state believes to be part of its national territory but which
claim is disputed - the Iranian claim to the two Tunbs and Abu Xusa or the
Bahraini claim to Zubara, for example, or disputed claims by several
parties - in the case of the Buraimi Dassis between Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi
and Oman. These claims became important as a result of the oil discoveries
in our region and the establishwent of new states deepened some of these
conflicts. There have also been important strategiC considerations at stake
- for example, with regard to the Iraq! c1ai .. to the two Kuwaiti islands
of Warba and Bubiyan.In Chapter III we look at the involvement of the superpowers in the
region. Particular attention 1s g1ven to the relationships between
theUnited States and Iran and between the United States and Saudi Arabia on
the one hand and that between the Soviet Union and Iraq on the other.
Attention has inevitably focussed upon military rivalry and the development
of armed forces.
In the sUbsequent chapters the emphasis changes. We dealwith the
region as a whole and look at events as they involve all the countries
concerned. These chapters cover the entire period from 19~8 to 1979 on a
daily basis by watching its politically dynamic developments. starting with
the fall of the Iraqi monarchy and the emergence of the revolutionary
regime in its place and ending with the downfall of the Shah of Iran in
1979. That has entailed consideration of the fate of the Iraqi revolution
and the emergence and fragile independence of Kuwait. Another significant
landmark 1s the British announcement 1n 1968 of their determination to
bring their long-established role in the region to an end three years
later. That in turn leads to a consideration of the politics of the
establishment of the United Arab Emirates and also of the international
aspects of the Omani question. The final chapters consider the 'Algiers
Accord' between Iran and Iraq and the dispute over the Bhatt al-Arab
waterway. Considerable note is taken of the Kurdish revolt in its various
phases. The thesis comes to an end by describing the downfall of the Shah
and the international evaluation of its significance.