Pavement design for port areas
This thesis describes a design method for heavily loaded flexible pavements in port areas. The design method is based on existing pavement design principles which have been extended to cover the specific design constraints of these structures. Existing pavement structures are surveyed and analysed, and the general problems of structural durability summarised. From this survey the most suitable paving materials are isolated. Characterisation techniques for paving materials and the development of existing empirical and semi-empirical designs are then reviewed. Since segmental block surfacing is being used increasingly in U. K. ports; current research and design and construction recommendations for this type of surfacing material are assessed. The pavement design method uses the multi-layer elastic analysis model. A concept of relative damage is proposed for the assessment of vehicle loading, based on the distribution of gross weights of the containers carried. A suitable design unit; the Port Area Wheel Load or PAWL, is defined. The method is presented in the form of a fully interactive computer program and graphical design charts. In both cases care has been taken to preserve the engineer's freedom in specifying material types and thicknesses, and controlling the actual design process. Finally, two design examples are presented and areas of further extensions and refinements to the overall design method indicated.