Effect of lubricating oil characteristics on gear vibrations
An extensive literature survey of the subject of gear dynamics is undertaken and the increasing recognition of the role of the lubricating oil film in this field, especially as a damping source, is highlighted. The oil film separating the mating surfaces of involute spur gears is analysed assuming hydrodynamic conditions, rigid teeth (as far as the film shape is concerned) and pressure dependent viscosity. Gear tooth mesh stiffness is expressed as a function of the dynamic load and the position of contact. simple model of a pair of spur gears is subjected to a transient response analysis and the behaviour of the lubricating oil film observed. According to the motions of equivalent masses of the apars under these transient conditions damping due to the oil film is determined. The numerical solutions obtained at various operating conditions are combined to form an approximate formula to predict the damping ratio in terms of the dynamic tooth load, rolling speed of the tooth surfaces and the viscosity of the lubricating oil. A digital computer simulation of the dynamic motion of the pair of gears is carried out incorporating the above damping ratio formula. The actual load sharing between the pairs of teeth (when more than one pair of teeth are in mesh), considering the tooth deflections, pitch errors, oil film thicknesses and the differences in mesh stiffnesses, is taken into account. The variations of the total maximum dynamic load and the maximum tooth load are studied under different nominal loads, contact ratios, oil viscosities and pitch errors over a wide range of speeds covering the resonance area. The variations of the dynamic load, individual tooth load, mesh stiffness and the oil film thickness during complete mesh cycles are also analysed under different operating conditions to identify particular areas where high loads and minimum film thicknesses occur. Theoretical results are compared with the experimental results obtained on a back-to-back gear test rig.