Twist changes in threadlines moving over surfaces
An investigation has been carried out into the twist blockage which may occur when yarns pass over guides or other surfaces. The influence of primary physical parameters such as surface curvature, are and length of contact, yarn twist level and tension and yarn/surface friction have been investigated together with secondary parameters such as yarn surface, pressure, angle of approach etc. As a result of these investigations, three mechanisms of blockage have been identified. The first of these occurs especially with doubled yarn in which the components lie side by side on the guide surface and blocked twist builds up until sufficient torque is developed to turn the yarn over against the couple generated by the components of yarn tension and reaction on the guide surface. In the second mechanism blocking torque is generated by components of friction on the yarn surface at right angles to the yarn axis. These orthogonal friction components may arise from interaction between the topography of the twisted yarn surface and the guide surface or may be generated by forces arising from an angular orientation of yarn to guide. The third mechanism is intermediate between the other two where a singles yarn (or its equivalent) is flattened on the surface and resistance to twist transmission is generated partly by internal friction within the yarn and partly by yarn/guide frictional forces. The main circumstances under which these different mechanisms may operate, have been identified and suggestions made for minimising the blockage of twist.