Holy communion in the Church of Scotland in the nineteenth century
The purpose of this thesis is to indicate the extent to which nineteenth century eucharistic thought and practice underwent a process of change within the Church of Scotland. It seeks also to identify those aspects of the Sacrament which were The thesis begins by showing that the older Scottish Reformed Communion did not remain intact, either in form or in theological emphasis. Within a century of the inauguration of Reformed discipline and teaching, such was the diversity of belief A review of the relevant literature of the first half of the nineteenth century reveals that much of the debate on the Lord's Supper in Scotland focussed upon the issue of the frequency of celebration. There is no doubt that the prevailing pract The early nineteenth century debate over the matter of frequency also draws attention to that epoch's preoccupation with the death of Christ as an aspect of sacramental thought which received undue consideration, overshadowing the old Reformed The thesis goes on to attribute such an understanding to the predominance of the federal or covenant theology within the Church of Scotland. An examination is made of the origin and nature of federalism and its effect upon nineteenth century e However, the thesis also shows that the liturgical awakening of the early nineteenth century helped to bring about the gradual and irreversible recession of federalism in the life of the Church. Moreover, it is argued that Romanticism provided aa With the assertion of the values of Romanticism and the erosion of federal theology, other influences made themselves felt in the nineteenth century Scottish Church. Anglican scholars affected by Tractarianism were known and admired by some, at In view of the burgeoning of German influence upon Scottish cultural and intellectual life - beginning tentatively in the last decades of the eighteenth century to become one of the established features of Scottish life by 1850 - due account is German influence manifested itself obliquely, however, during the decade 1850-1860 and prior to the founding of the Church Service Society in 1865. Moreover, this influence was specifically related to the Eucharist and was transmitted to the C The view is advanced at this stage that the liturgical development of the nineteenth century, particularly in relation to the Lord's Supper, cannot adequately be surveyed without taking into account the Communion psalmody, and latterly hymnody, If the appearance of The Scottish Mission Hymnbook (1912) marked one aspect of the Scoto-Catholic party's concern for eucharistic worship and praise, the earlier publication of William Milligan's Ascension and Heavenly Priesthood of The thesis concludes by indicating the manner in which some of the late nineteenth century eucharistic themes were developed or modified by circumstances and events as this present century progressed.