A critical study of the archaeology of the Jawf region of Saudi Arabia with additional material on its history and early Arabic epigraphy
This thesis concentrates on the study of the archaeology of the Jawf region, including excavations in various sites, and also a comprehensive survey of the sites and monuments throughout the region. The thesis is divided into nine chapters.Chapter I deals with the history of the Jawf during the pre-Islamic periods. In the first part of this chapter, the Assyrian campaigns against Dumat al-Jandal are studied. The rest of the chapter is devoted to the history of the region during the Babylonian, Nabataean and the Roman and Byzantine periods. Chapter II focuses on the history of the area during the early Islamic period and the conquest of Dumat al-Jandal by Khalid b. al-Walid during the caliphate of Abu Bakr. Chapter III is dedicated to the study of the various accounts of Dumat al-Jandal by the early Arab geographers. Chapter IV deals with the trade routes which passed through the Jawf and the implication of the caravan trade on the history of the region. Chapter V investigates the pre-history of the Jawf region and examines the unique site of al-Rajajil to the south of Sakaka. Chapter VI is devoted to the study of the excavations results in the sites of al-Tuwayr, Dumat al-Jandal and the Muwaysin castle.The arch aeological materials which have been discovered were compared with similar materials from various sites in Jordan, Syria, Iraq and Eastern Arabia. Chapter VII concentrates on the architecture within the Jawf region and gives a full description of the various monuments and the different building techniques and materials used. Chapter VIII focuses on the study of the early Arabic inscriptions which are found in the region. We discuss their palaeography, historical importance and their parallel with some of the published materials from various parts of the Islamic world. Chapter IX is a study of the pottery from various sites in the Jawf. The first part of this chapter discusses the ware types and vessel types of the pottery from the Tuwayr and Dumat al-Jandal sites, while the second part is a pottery catalogue. In addition, this thesis also contains three appendices: the first is an examination of the well of Saysarȁ at Sakākā; the second investigates the walled enclosure of Dumat al-Jandal; and the third is a glossary of Arabic terms associated with the architecture.