A wavevector imaging photoelectron spectrometer, with application to a magnetic overlayer system
The work presented in this thesis may be considered in two main parts; firstly a description of the design and operation of a display type photoelectron spectrometer. Secondly a series of experiments investigating the electronic properties of thin epitaxial films (1-5 atomic layers) of cobalt grown on a clean single crystal copper (001) substrate. Conventional angle resolved photoelectron spectrometers of the deflection type are only capable of observing one point in the (E,θ,φ) space at a time. This is often perfectly acceptable if one is concerned with optimal resolution in order to perform accurate band mapping experiments. However certain experiments are essentially impossible, for instance the observation of the emitted photocurrent over all θ,φ at the fermi energy. This is partly because of the time limitations imposed by the necessity to keep the sample atomically clean in the U.H.V. environment. Several previous workers have tackled this problem by designing spectrometers that observe large sections of θ,φ space simultaneously, for a given energy. The first part of this work concerns the design and implementation of a display type spectrometer which embodies some new and quite novel features. Thin epitaxial films of ferromagnetic materials grown on non-magnetic substrates have long been of interest. Partly as a prototypical surface for the investigation of surface magnetism, and partly for the investigation of the changes induced in the magnetic properties as the dimensionality is reduced or as the lattice size is changed. The second part of this thesis concerns experiments using three different spectroscopies on a system of this type, specifically Co on Cu(001). Firstly, a photoemission study using the display spectrometer is presented, observations of the spin-split bands as a function of wavevector parallel to the surface are shown. Secondly an Auger electron study of the growth mode of the epitaxial film, together with a LEED I/V study of the changing lattice strain as a function of film thickness are presented. Although none of these measurements directly probe the magnetism of the films, they provide very necessary information in order to understand their behaviour.