Fertility and the status of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina
This thesis examines the fertility and women's status in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It reviews the differences in population growth rates among the world's major areas during the 1950-2000 and the fertility characteristics and family policy in Europe. The fertility transition across Europe is highlighted. All European countries have experienced considerable decline of fertility and by the end of the 20th century the rates were far below replacement levels in almost every country. The demographic change and fall in fertility in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in neighbouring states is marked. In so doing, it applies the demographic period analysis of fertility rates in the second half of the 20th century and in recent years and the examination of total fertility and age specific fertility rates shows that there was variation in the declining dependent upon the extent of female education and occupation. The historical aspect of female positions in Bosnia-Herzegovina's society is illustrates that fertility transitions are initiated by the improved status of women and their increased ability to determine own fertility. The correlation between fertility and urbanization and income per capita suggests that as income or the level of urbanization rises then the fertility rate falls. Ethnic affiliation to some extent corresponds with other socio-economic factors impacting on fertility level. Total fertility rates vary across urban and rural place of residence generally, but higher fertility rates are found in more urban then in rural areas. The greater involvement in the impersonal market sector and better professional position, the lower are the fertility preferences and lower actual fertility. The large body of evidence showing how high fertility levels is related to economically less developed municipalities helps to elucidate the relationship between a women's occupation and total fertility rate. The post-war period is characterized by new women's activism but participation of women in different sphere of public life and their general status are still not satisfactory. The more emphasized decline in natality and fertility rates in recent years is the consequence of unenvious socio-economic and political environment in Bosnia and Herzegovina.